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Computer Security is the process of preventing and detecting unauthorized use of your computer. Computer security (also known as cyber security or IT security) is information security as applied to computing devices such as computers and smart phones, as well as computer networks such as private and public networks, including Ethernet and Internet. The field covers all the processes and mechanisms by which computer-based equipment, information and services are protected from unintended or unauthorized access, change or destruction, and are of growing importance in line with the increasing reliance on computer systems of most societies worldwide.
Cyber attack is any type of offensive maneuver employed by individuals or whole organizations that targets computer information systems, infrastructures, computer networks, and/or personal computer devices by various means of malicious acts usually originating from an anonymous source that either steals, alters, or destroys a specified target by hacking into a susceptible system. These can be labeled as either a Cyber campaign, cyber warfare or cyber terrorism in different context. Cyber-attacks can range from installing spyware on a PC to attempts to destroy the infrastructure of entire nations.
Computer security refers to techniques for ensuring that data stored in a computer cannot be read or compromised by any individuals without authorization. Most computer security measures involve data encryption and passwords. Data encryption is the translation of data into a form that is unintelligible without a deciphering mechanism. A password is a secret word or phrase that gives a user access to a particular program or system. Computer Security has several security measures such as software programs like anti-virus suites, firewalls, and user dependant measures such as activating deactivating certain software features like Java scripts, ActiveX and being vigilant in using the computer and the network resources or the Internet.
Computer Security is concerned with four main areas:
Only authorized users can access the data resources and information.
Only authorized users should be able to modify the data when needed.
Data should be available to users when needed.
You are really communicating with whom you think you are communicating.
Computer Security can be any security which are mention below
A firewall is a network security system that controls the incoming and outgoing network traffic based on applied rule set. A firewall establishes a barrier between a trusted, secure internal network and another network (e.g. the Internet) that is not assumed to be secure and trusted. Firewalls exist both as a software solution and as a hardware appliance. Many hardware-based firewalls also offer other functionality to the internal network they protect, such as acting as a DHCP server for that network.
Firewalls can be implemented in both hardware and software, or a combination of both. Firewalls are frequently used to prevent unauthorized Internet users from accessing private networks connected to the Internet, especially intranets. All messages entering or leaving the intranet pass through the firewall, which examines each message and blocks those that do not meet the specified security criteria. Firewalls can be either hardware or software but the ideal firewall configuration will consist of both.
In protecting private information, a firewall is considered a first line of defense; it cannot, however, be considered the only such line. Firewalls are generally designed to protect network traffic and connections, and therefore do not attempt to authenticate individual users when determining who can access a particular computer or network.
There are several types of firewalls exist:
- Packet filtering: The system examines each packet entering or leaving the network and accepts or rejects it based on user-defined rules. Packet filtering is fairly effective and transparent to users, but it is difficult to configure. In addition, it is susceptible to IP spoofing.
- Circuit-level gateway implementation: This process applies security mechanisms when a TCP or UDP connection is established. Once the connection has been made, packets can flow between the hosts without further checking.
- Acting as a proxy server: A proxy server is a type of gateway that hides the true network address of the computer(s) connecting through it. A proxy server connects to the Internet, makes the requests for pages, connections to servers, etc., and receives the data on behalf of the computer(s) behind it. The firewall capabilities lie in the fact that a proxy can be configured to allow only certain types of traffic to pass (e.g., HTTP files, or web pages). A proxy server has the potential drawback of slowing network performance, since it has to actively analyze and manipulate traffic passing through it.
- Web application firewall: A web application firewall is a hardware appliance, server plug-in, or some other software filter that applies a set of rules to a HTTP conversation. Such rules are generally customized to the application so that many attacks can be identified and blocked.